Division of Education and Kinesiology
 
Kinesiology PE & Health

National Standards & Learning Outcomes for Coaching

National Standards for Athletic Coaches

Injuries: Prevention, Care and Management

The student will:

Risk Management

The student will:

Growth, Development and Learning

The student will:

Training, Conditioning and Nutrition

The student will:

Social/Psychological Aspects of Coaching

The student will:

Skills, Tactics and Strategies

The student will:

Teaching and Administration

The student will:

Professional Preparation and Development

The student will:

Learning Outcomes for Coaching

The following outcomes were prepared by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (an organization with AAHPERD) and are presented in Quality Sports, Quality Coaches: National Standards for Athletic Coaches, 1995.

Injuries: Prevention, Care and Management

The student will:

Prevent injuries by recognizing and insisting on safe playing conditions

  1. recognize the environmental and safety hazards likely to affect athletes in practice and competition-such as wet or slippery surfaces, structures in or near activity areas with which athletes may collide, such as walls, fences and goals standards, sprinkler heads or spectator seating.
  2. establish and follow procedures for identifying and correcting unsafe conditions.
  3. stop or modify practice or play when unsafe conditions exist.
  4. ensure that qualified individuals are present to officiate all competitions.
  5. require the use of appropriate and adequate safety equipment by all athletes during practice and competition.
  6. know and apply the rules and policies related to the safety and welfare of athletes in the sport being coached during all practices and competition.
  7. be active at your level of coaching in working for the formulation of rules that influence the safety and healthful participation of athletes in the sport coached.

Ensure that protective equipment is in good condition, fits properly and is worn as prescribed by the manufacturer; ensure that equipment and facilities meet required standards (ASTM and USCPSC).

  1. know what safety equipment and facilities are needed by athletes and required by rules governing competition in the sport coached or otherwise needed for athletic protection.
  2. assist athletes in choosing, fitting and maintaining equipment, including safety gear.
  3. know which items of equipment are subject to recognized safety standards (ASTM< USCPSC) and ensure that all items meet the standards.
  4. know applicable safety standards for the sport coached; regularly inspect all facilities apparel and equipment to assure compliance with all safely requirements.

Recognize that proper conditioning and good health are vital to the prevention of athletic injuries.

  1. instruct athletes in aerobic and anaerobic conditioning programs appropriate for the sport and athletes being coached.
  2. use conditioning drills and activities consistent with the needs of the sport and athlete.
  3. know how aerobic and anaerobic energy is produced and relate these two energy systems to the demands of the sport coached.
  4. prepare practice plans incorporating conditioning activities designed to develop both anaerobic and aerobic energy fitness as required by the sport; indicate which system is being developed.
  5. know the role played by the musculo/skeletal system in skill development and prevention of injuries.
  6. prepare season coaching plan that indicates when and how conditioning will take place.
  7. understand and be able to implement the different types of muscular training (interval, circuit and weight training) as they relate to sport and athletes being coached.
  8. know how skill instruction, conditioning, preventive care and coaching decisions influence the risk of injury to athletes.
  9. plan in-season and out-of-season activities designed to develop those elements of total conditioning required by the sport.
  10. instruct athletes about off-season programs that will assist in maintaining appropriate levels of general fitness for sport.

Prevent exposure to the risk of injuries by considering the effects of environmental conditions on the circulatory and respiratory systems when planning and scheduling practices and contests and implementing programs for physical conditioning.

  1. describe the functioning of the circulatory and respiratory systems and how these functions react to serious stresses.
  2. recognize the differences of athlete response to circulatory/respiratory stress.
  3. know how such environmental factors as temperature, humidity, altitude and general climate can represent a risk to athletes and how such risk can be reduced.
  4. know how clothing worn for practice and competition can affect the risks associated with various environmental conditions.
  5. prepare practice plans that allow for dealing with dangerous environmental factors, be prepared to limit activity to reduce risk.
  6. provide for unlimited fluid/water intake during physical activity and instruct athletes about proper hydration and acclimatization.
  7. know the most common pre-existing conditions of athletes, e.g., asthma, allergies, diabetes, improper body fat levels, nutritional deficiencies, cardiac conditions, seizures, repeated concussion, serious orthopedic injury; how to identify those athletes suffering from these conditions; the circumstances in which these conditions put the athlete at unusual risk; how to modify activity to effusively reduce that risk; how to recognize symptoms indicating that the condition is causing the athlete to suffer activity related injury/illness; and how to appropriately respond to such indications.

Plan, coordinate and implement procedures for appropriate emergency care.

  1. know the details of and be prepared to execute the established emergency plan for the organization/activity/situation.
  2. have available a written emergency plan for all sites where practices and competitions occur.
  3. maintain appropriate medical records for each athlete- including medical information or physical examination forms and medical treatment consent forms.
  4. assure that medical information and treatment consent forms are available during all practices and competition.

Demonstrate skill in prevention, recognition and evaluation of injuries and the ability to assist athletes with the recovery/rehabilitation from injuries that are generally associated with participation in athletics in accordance with guidelines provided by qualified medical personnel.

Prevention:

  1. recognize the physical risks in the sport to be coached and how injuries may be prevented or minimized and the importance of reporting all symptoms immediately.
  2. prepare practice plans that indicate where and when dangerous situations may arise and tell how these situations are to be managed.
  3. teach athletes to distinguish among different types of injuries and related pain (for example, sharp pain in joints that may indicate injuries that will worsen if proper rest or treatment are not provided as compared to aches within muscles which may be an acceptable element of conditioning and fitness.

Care:

  1. have knowledge of first aid and CPR.
  2. know how to recognize and respond to symptoms of injuries that may occur in the sport coached.
  3. have a first aid kit available at all practices and games; know its contents and their appropriate use; know the location of the nearest telephone.
  4. know and be able to apply standard management procedures designed to minimize exposure to blood-borne pathogens (BBPs); know and follow contest rules intended to limit exposure of athletes and officials to blood and body fluids.
  5. know when professional medical care is required for an injured athlete.
  6. complete and file an injury report form for each medical emergency.

Management:

  1. follow guidelines and instructions provided by a NATA certified athletic trainer, team physician and/or other qualified sports medicine professionals in implementation of procedures for returning athletes to play following injury or illness, including when the athlete can resume activity.
  2. consider such factors as the type of injury, the need for reconditioning and the athlete's skill level when preparing a plan for aiding an athlete in returning from injury.
  3. help athletes understand how injury and subsequent recovery programs may affect their level of performance.
  4. require injured athletes to follow through with a conditioning regimen prepared by medical personnel.
  5. teach athletes that rehabilitation of injuries should be initiated under the guidance of medical personnel.
  6. understand the psychological consequences of injury and assist athletes in dealing with them.
  7. help athletes realize how such issues as "playing with pain" influence decisions about recovery programs and the time allotted to them.
  8. allow athletes the time to recover fully from injury before returning to play.
  9. emphasize to athletes that such elements as communication with care givers and skills for coping with becoming dependent upon medical personnel are part of the recovery program.

Facilitate a unified medical program of prevention, care and management of injuries by coordinating the roles and actions of the coach and NATA certified athletic trainer with those of the physician.

  1. consult with NATA certified athletic trainer or physician for assistance in understanding the physical needs of athletes.
  2. change coaching techniques when a trainer or physician brings the needs to do so to the coach’s attention.
  3. involve a NATA certified athletic trainer, exercise physiologist or physician of sports medicine in preparing a plan for conditioning athletes for specific sports.
  4. cooperate with qualified medical personnel to prepare a summary of season injuries and analyze the summary of season injuries to discover possible injury patterns.
  5. change coaching techniques and/or conditioning programs when injury patterns suggest a need to do so; for example, if ankle sprains were common, consider whether and how the joint can be made less susceptible through training.

Care:

  1. assure that an athlete is referred to a NATA Certified athletic trainer, team physician or other qualified provider upon sustaining an injury which requires more than minor first aid care, and that the athlete does not return to activity without clearance from such provider.

Management:

  1. keep a record of communications with health-care providers concerned with the treatment of injured athletes.

Provide coaching assistants, athletes and parents/guardians with education about injury prevention, injury reporting and sources of medical care.

Risk Management

The student will:

Understand the scope of legal responsibilities that comes with assuming a coaching position, e.g. proper supervision, planning and instruction, matching participants, safety, first aid and risk management.

  1. follow safety guidelines, procedures and risk management plans established by program administrators.
  2. in accordance with established administrative procedures and based upon relevant legal requirements, organize and maintain appropriate records as evidence in the event of legal challenges. Records should include assignments of personnel; practice plans; special safety measures; attendance of athletes; emergency plans; safety rules/procedures; reports of injuries; copies of records of all oral and written communications concerning an injury or other unusual event.
  3. provide proper general and specific supervision of athletes.
  4. inspect facilities and equipment for potential safety hazards prior to each use.
  5. know the coaches responsibilities in first aid, CPR and emergency procedures.
  6. know the legal responsibilities of the coach in teaching, supervision, transportation, medical care and communication and how to meet them.
  7. be able to match participants in terms of such characteristics as age, maturity, size, skill and experience; group participants appropriately.
  8. cooperate with administrators and medical providers in developing and regularly reviewing a formal risk management plan.

Properly inform coaching assistants, parents/guardians and athletes of the inherent risks associated with sport so that decisions about participation can be made with informed consent.

  1. know the specific risks to participants and how to reduce these risks for the sport coached.
  2. inform those involved about the risks of athletics by instructing athletes and others concerned about the purpose of agreements to participate and informed consent, medical information, medical release and medical emergency forms.
  3. prior to participation, require the completion of all necessary agreements and medical forms by athletes and guardians.
  4. for coaches and participants, conduct and document meetings regarding procedures for safety and emergency and guidelines for risk management.

Know and convey the need and availability of appropriate medical insurance.

  1. distribute information to assistant coaches, athletes and parent/guardians concerned about sources for personal health and liability insurance.
  2. discuss the importance of adequate health and accident insurance coverage with athletes and parents/guardians prior to participation and as needed at other times.
  3. comply with existing requirements regarding insurance for athletic participation and record evidence that all participants have such coverage.

Participate in continuing education regarding rules changes, better techniques and other information in order to enhance the health, safety and success of the athlete.

  1. attend rules meetings offered by appropriate sanctioning groups in order to be informed of rules changes and interpretations.
  2. attend clinics, workshops and/or in-service education programs designed for coached in order to obtain information necessary for coaching.
  3. read professional publications dealing with the sport coached for information on safety, proper equipment and coaching strategies.
  4. when opportunities arise, communicate with other coaches about the sport, how it should be taught and how it can be made safer.
  5. document formal and informal education as evidence of accumulated competence.

Growth, Development and Learning

The student will:

Recognize the developmental physical changes that occur as athletes move from youth through adulthood and know how these changes influence the sequential learning and performance of motor skills in a specific sport.

  1. demonstrate knowledge of the general development sequence in mental. Motor and physical abilities.
  2. recognize the physical and motor limitations of athletes common to the age and skill level being coached and adjust expectations accordingly.
  3. choose drills and practice plans which allow athletes the opportunity to improve while not forcing them to extend themselves beyond their physical and mental-emotional limits.
  4. teach skills and strategies that are within the performance limits of the athletes.
  5. recognize the developmental stages of athletes and know how they relate to a specific sport as either limits to or prerequisites for performance.

Understand the social and emotional development of the athletes being coached, know how to recognize problems related to this development and know where to refer them for appropriate assistance when necessary.

  1. recognize the typical behaviors exhibited by athletes of the age groups being coached.
  2. know the different general stages of social and emotional development of the athletes being coached and realize the developmental differences that may exist.
  3. be aware of social-psychological issues that may affect athletes of different ages in contemporary society; these may include such factors as peer pressure, lowered self-esteem, single- parent families, substance abuse, violence, sexual identity, emotional stress and child abuse.
  4. know how to recognize psycho-social distress and the resources available to assist athletes.
  5. refer athletes with social and emotional problems to appropriate professionals for assistance.
  6. know and educate athletes and parent/guardians how social psychological problems may increase susceptibility to injuries or influence recovery.

Analyze human performance in terms of developmental information and individual body structure.

  1. assess the capabilities of athletes based on age, maturity, size, skill level and experience.
  2. assess athlete success in learning skills relative to their physical limits.
  3. develop practice plans that allow for all athletes to learn new skills at their own pace and within their own limits.
  4. recognize that athlete performance is determined by developmental level, chronological age, experience and genetic endowment.
  5. recognize differences in body structure specific to the age group and the sport being coached.
  6. know the basic movement capabilities and limitations of various elements involved in the body movement.
  7. understand the essentials of anatomy and biomechanics as they relate to physical activity generally and specifically.
  8. understand how biomechanical factors can limit motor performance skills.
  9. establish performance goals that reflect the developmental levels of the athletes.
  10. know how the body types of the athletes affects their performance of the needed motor skills.
  11. know that athletes may extend the limits of their abilities by learning to compensate for specific limitations.
  12. evaluate athletic performance based on possible bodily movements and mechanical limitations of the individual athlete.
  13. prepare season-end evaluations of athlete progress relative to developmental level and relevant variables in body structure.
  14. know which body systems and physiological factors are key to athletic performance, and apply this knowledge in designing training and practices.

Provide instruction to develop sport-specific motor skills. Refer athletes to appropriate counsel as needed.

  1. recognize the general developmental characteristics of the relevant athlete population and their common problems; these may include such items as problems with eye-hand coordination, visual training needs, growth spurts, maturational problems and over-use injuries.
  2. emphasize life-long activity and enjoyment of physical activity as goals of athletic participation.
  3. know community and medical resources are available to assist with problems affecting the athletes coached.
  4. refer athletes with developmental motor problems for appropriate professional assistance.
  5. know how such factors as motivation, physical development and emotional maturity influence the ability of athletes to learn new skills.
  6. aid athletes in assessing their own abilities accurately.
  7. know the over-all requirements and opportunities of the relevant sport so that athletes can be made aware of opportunities open to them.
  8. find additional opportunities in the sport for those participants who are highly motivated or particularly capable of higher levels of achievement.

Provide learning experiences appropriate to the growth and development of the age group coached.

  1. acquire or prepare season objectives that reflect the physical and mental development and levels of the athletes.
  2. select specific drills and activities that allow athletes of various levels to experience success.
  3. use a variety of activities to help athletes of various levels of ability develop specific skills.

Training, Conditioning and Nutrition

The student will:

Demonstrate a basic knowledge of physiological systems and their responses training and conditioning

  1. know the five essentials of conditioning: Warm up/cool down, overload, progression, specificity and reversibility; implement them according to the developmental level of the athletes.
  2. know the components of the physiological systems involved with athletic conditioning.
  3. know how the cardiovascular and muscular systems produce energy and how they respond to training.
  4. understand muscular strength, power, endurance and flexibility; know how each is required of athletes; implement training programs that develop these elements based on the developmental maturity of the athletes.
  5. know common methods of conditioning (such as interval, circuit and weight training) and use each appropriately in preparing a complete conditioning program for athletes.
  6. prepare a comprehensive plan for both in-season and out-of- season conditioning of athletes.
  7. considering the sport being coached and individual differences of athletes, apply the principles of conditioning to the needs of athletes.

Design programs of training and conditioning that properly incorporate the mechanics of movement and sound physiological principles taking into account each individual’s ability and medical history, avoiding contraindicated exercises and activities and guarding against the possibility of over-training; be able to modify programs as needed.

  1. know which training/conditioning activities are potentially harmful (contraindicated) for athletes; avoid using these activities in coaching.
  2. know and be able to teach activities that develop and maintain the basic level of conditioning needed for the sport.
  3. know the components of physical fitness and the appropriate levels of each in relation to age and sport-specific demands.
  4. assess the existing sport-specific fitness levels of the athletes.
  5. know how the age, development and needs of athletes determine the appropriate levels of training and conditioning.
  6. identify and use activities that simultaneously provide for more than one area of conditioning.
  7. prepare practice plans that train and condition the entire group while creating opportunities for individual athletes to meet specific needs.
  8. distinguish between minimal and advanced levels of training and conditioning; be able to implement each according to athletes needs.
  9. assess the level of development and interest shown by the athletes for involvement in appropriate off-season conditioning programs.
  10. implement training programs that can be placed in a development sequence appropriate for the highly-motivated athlete.
  11. know the indicators of over training (i.e. lack of interest in practice, lowered level of performance, minor injuries failing to heal or chronic complaining about practice or injury); regularly assess the athletes coached for these indicators.
  12. know techniques to medicate/reduce of over-training (i.e. increased variety of drills/activities allowing athletes to organize practices, shortening practice sessions and practicing at different times or in different settings) to reduce or eliminate these symptoms.
  13. know how to prevent over-training; these may include such things as cross-training, periodization and increased autonomy.

Demonstrate knowledge of proper nutrition and educate athletes about the effects of nutrition upon health and physical performance.

  1. know the essential foods groups and how to provide a balanced diet for athletes.
  2. know what foods to suggest for a pre-competition meal and when this meal should be eaten.
  3. know the effects on performance of using pharmacological aids such as steroids, amphetamines and caffeine.
  4. understand the demands of athletics as they relate to increased or specialized dietary needs.
  5. know whether dietary supplements are necessary or desirable for athletes.
  6. understand the issues of body composition and weight control and recognize signs of eating disorders.
  7. refer athletes with nutritional problems (such as weight control or use of performance enhancing substances) for appropriate professional assistance.

Demonstrate knowledge of the use and abuse of drugs and promote sound chemical health.

  1. demonstrate/model appropriate behavior regarding sound chemical health. Show concern for the use and abuse of chemicals by athletes and be prepared to intervene.
  2. recognize typical drug use patterns exhibited by athletes and intervene if necessary.
  3. know the legal responsibilities of adults working with minors as they relate to potential use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.
  4. know how the use of chemicals affects athletic performance.
  5. understand the social, emotional and psychological pressures placed upon athletes which make them susceptible to drug use.
  6. plan/facilitate participation by drug free athletes.
  7. know and use appropriate agencies to provide assistance in prevention and treatment of drug use.
  8. know how the side-effects of medically prescribed drugs and medications may affect athletic performance.

Social/Psychological Aspects of Coaching

The student will:

Subscribe to a philosophy that acknowledges the role of athletics in developing complete person.

  1. recognize that each athlete is an individual with unique needs and treat athletes accordingly.
  2. organize activities so that athletes have an opportunity to develop/maintain positive feelings of self-worth.
  3. emphasize enjoyment and satisfaction within the context of practices and games, particularly in age group sports.
  4. provide positive encouragement to all athletes on a regular basis.
  5. supports participants in developing themselves fully as both athletes and individuals.
  6. allow athletes time and opportunity to participate in a variety of activities outside of sport in support of a balanced lifestyle.
  7. encourage athletes to be well-educated and to become well- rounded individuals.
  8. recognize the connections between sport and other activities in which athletes participate.
  9. assist athletes in learning to manage time appropriately.
  10. identify the ideas and principles guiding your coaching efforts to reflect a concern for the emotional and physical health of your athletes.

Identify and apply ethical conduct in sport by maintaining emotional control and demonstrating respect for athletes, officials and other coaches.

  1. exhibit self-control and self-discipline at all times.
  2. recognize the effect coach behavior may have on athletes, officials and spectators; provide a good role model for others.
  3. be positive, courteous and considerate when dealing with others (athletes, officials, opponents, concerned others and spectators) in stressful situations.
  4. know the rules of the sport coached; understand that knowledge of the rules on the part of coaches, athletes and spectators can minimize conflicts with officials and maximize performance.
  5. know that competition requires respect and positive regard by opponents, coaching staffs, officials and spectators – that the conduct of all participants affects the quality of the sport experience for everyone.
  6. learn stress management techniques such as progressive relaxation, deep breathing, behavior modeling, visualization and positive self-talk and be able to teach them to the athletes; assist athletes in using these techniques to deal with competitive stress.
  7. use stress management skills to defuse potentially difficult emotional situations.

Demonstrate effective motivational skills and provide positive, appropriate feedback.

  1. recognize the importance of self-confidence and self-esteem to the athlete’s development.
  2. enhance athletes’ self-esteem by such methods as showing acceptance, reacting positively to mistakes and giving encouragement.
  3. use a variety of positive instructional methods, such specific feedback and specific encouragement and constructive criticism.
  4. know the social and emotional reasons for people becoming involved in athletics (among these are enjoyment, improving kills and learning new ones, the excitement of competition, being with friends and making new friends and enjoying success and recognition.
  5. know and use appropriate goal-setting strategies, alternative goals, individual support, arousal techniques, etc.; the positive approach to correcting errors and the questionable function of inspirational speeches as ways of reducing the athletes’ fear of failure and so reducing their level of stress felt in practice and competition.

Conduct practices and competitions to enhance the physical. Social and emotional growth of athletes.

  1. provide an appropriate model for interacting with teammates, opponents, officials and others.
  2. emphasize the importance of enjoying practices and competitions.
  3. provide opportunities for athletes to derive satisfaction from striving for personal and group goals.
  4. use the sport experience to support positive social behaviors – such as "fair play," sportsmanship, hard work towards group goals, working as a unit, accepting responsibility for success and failure and self.
  5. develop positive social behaviors in athletes by acknowledging acts of sportsmanship, encouraging respect for teammates and opponents, respecting effort and improvement and stressing personal involvement and self-control.
  6. structure practice and game experiences so that participants find them satisfying, positive experiences that provide an opportunity to develop the positive values associated with competition.

Be sufficiently familiar with the basic principles of goal setting to motivate athletes toward immediate and long range goals.

  1. recognize the difference between short and long-range goals.
  2. help athletes prepare short and long-range goals for themselves and their team, recognizing that goal setting can have both positive and negative consequences.
  3. prepare short and long-range coaching goals.
  4. assist athletes in relating long range goals for participation to the realities of competition and the need to develop non-sports related interests and talents.

Treat each athlete as an individual while recognizing the dynamic relationship of personality socio-cultural variables such as gender, race, and socio-economic differences.

  1. recognize that social environment influences the behaviors and personalities.
  2. understand how social, cultural and emotional forces interact in creating athlete personalities.
  3. understand the many dimensions of personality that may be expressed in athletes and teach athletes how to deal with these differences.
  4. accept differences in personality as another necessary component in preparing athletes for competition.
  5. promote the equality of opportunity within the sport by encouraging participation regardless of race, gender, socio- economic status or culture; this may involve working to overcome such barriers as tradition, bias, public image, funding, regulations, policies and apathy.

Identify desirable behaviors and structure experiences to develop such behaviors in each athlete.

  1. model desirable behaviors and use a variety id skills appropriate to specific situations.
  2. allow all athletes to fill leadership positions at appropriate times.
  3. identify desirable behaviors exhibited by athletes; these may include the ability to plan and organize activities, charisma, enthusiasm and the ability to help teammates perform better.
  4. distinguish between positive (planning and organizing skills, enthusiasm) and negative (bulling, dictatorial) behaviors; utilize and encourage the former and avoid and discourage the latter.
  5. prepare practice and season plans that establish and reinforce the development of desirable behavior for all athletes.

Skills, Tactics and Strategies

The student will:

Identify and apply specific competitive tactics and strategies appropriate for the age and skill levels involved.

  1. know and identify both efficient and inefficient performances of the basic skills of the sport; be able to analyze and correct typical errors in performances.
  2. know all the rules of the sport and teach them to athletes.
  3. know the vocabulary necessary to communicate with coaches and athletes.
  4. know the basic strategies and tactics of the sport; be able to apply them in appropriate situations.
  5. understand that the athlete’s ability to use tactics and understand strategies are developmental and that athletes must master basic ones before learning advanced strategies and tactics.
  6. select strategies and tactics based upon the age, skill, experience and conditioning level of the athletes.
  7. recognize that the performance of skills and techniques is determined by the athlete’s maturity and experiences.
  8. prepare situationally-specific plans that reflect the abilities of the athletes.
  9. prepare end-of-contest and special situation strategies for use as needed.
  10. understand how rules may dictate strategy, and be able to implement appropriate strategies in competitive situations.

Organize and implement materials for scouting, planning practices and analysis of games.

  1. implement both seasonal and daily practice plans.
  2. summarize, evaluate and maintain records of drills and practice plans used.
  3. recognize the necessity of scouting opponents at upper levels of play in many sports.
  4. be able to scout opponents, assess and analyze strengths and weaknesses, and documents information in a usable form.
  5. demonstrate the ability to develop a competition plan based on assessment of opponents and the athlete’s abilities.
  6. prepare a written game plan summary that considers opponent tendencies and identifies strategies and tactics for positive results.
  7. develop and use meaningful aids for analysis of competitions; these should include such information as individual and team statistics, videotapes and assessments by observers.
  8. be able to anticipate the likely strategies of opposing coaches and be prepared to respond to them in a timely manner.
  9. be able to identify the basic philosophy guiding the play of opponents.
  10. use knowledge of the opponent strategies, tactics and philosophy to aid in the preparation of game plans and the selection of strategies and tactics.

Understand and enforce the rules and regulations of appropriate bodies that govern sport and education.

  1. know the rules and regulations (of relevant governing bodies) concerning participation in the sport.
  2. strictly enforce the rules of the governing body - specially as they relate to athlete eligibility to participate.
  3. properly complete all forms validating the eligibility of athletes.
  4. develop and maintain a system for keeping athlete records current and secure.

Organize, conduct and evaluate practice sessions with regard to established program goals that are appropriate for different stages of the season.

  1. determine which skills in each area of the sport experiences - physical skills, knowledge of the sport, physical fitness and personal/social skills – are to be taught at each level within the total program.
  2. arrange these skills and introduce them in a logical sequence; use a season planning calendar to indicate when each skill or tactic will be taught.
  3. teach the skills and tactics through practice activities that reflect competitive experiences.
  4. stress performance as the measure of progress in learning skills.
  5. after the competitive season, summarize and analyze successes and areas needing improvement.
  6. use season analysis and summary along with the seasonal and individual practice schedules to assist in planning for the succeeding season.
  7. evaluate the progress of individual athletes in achieving pre- determined goals.
  8. consult with experienced coaches and educators for aid in assessing the athlete progress.

Teaching and Administration

The student will:

Know the key elements of sport principles and technical skills as well as the various teaching methods that can be used to introduce and refine them.

  1. know the key elements of effective practice plans and prepare sample seasonal, weekly and daily plans; include a variety of activities and drills in daily plans.
  2. know the techniques of corrective action and personnel management that are appropriate to the age of the athletes being coached.
  3. know and apply steps for systematically instructing athletes as they progress developmentally in the skills of the sport.
  4. demonstrate the ability to communicate effectively, using appropriate available technology.
  5. learn and apply the elements of effective instruction.
  6. prepare a set of desired outcomes for the sport coached; these should emphasize athlete growth and development.
  7. sequence practices so that all athletes develop a sense of self- control and discipline as they become increasingly responsible for themselves and elements of practice.
  8. evaluate drills based on their effectiveness in developing skills and tactics appropriate of the level of competition.
  9. determine when it is necessary to re-instruct athletes in such elements as skills, strategies and rules.
  10. know and use the most effective instructional techniques of re- teaching.
  11. know and use different motivational techniques and rewards systems in preparing athletes for sessions involving re- instruction and review.
  12. use appropriate tools such as videotapes to analyze skills and to monitor skills in both practice and competition settings.
  13. use assessment during practice to guide instruction and re- instruction.

Demonstrate objective and effective procedures for the evaluation and selection of personnel involved in the athletic program and for periodic program reviews.

  1. identify the desirable characteristics and abilities to be attained by each athlete throughout the season.
  2. consider the desired characteristics and abilities when preparing regular evaluations of the athletes – as they try out, during the season and at the end of the season.
  3. provide athletes with evaluations of personal achievement and discuss the results with each athlete individually at regular intervals.
  4. evaluate the effectiveness of coaching techniques used as they relate to the performance of athletes.
  5. understand that coaching effectiveness is determined by the degree to which athletes meet previously established objectives and that both peer and self-evaluation are effective tools.
  6. follow an established sequence for evaluation which involves the identification of objectives, data collection, analysis of data and making the needed changes.
  7. record data about the athlete performance (such as a checklist of effective coaching actions and records of progress by the athletes) in order to monitor progress and coaching effectiveness.
  8. establish criteria for the selection and elimination of members of a team or squad; apply these criteria with fairness and integrity.
  9. prepare job descriptions for assistants, managers, team captains, etc.
  10. prepare a list of performance objectives for additional personnel.
  11. evaluate program personnel - including assistant coaches, managers and trainers.
  12. use formal, written evaluations to assist in selecting and retraining program personnel.
  13. know and be able to implement diplomatic, sensitive ways in which to communicate with program personnel - athletes trying out, players, co-coaches and others – about their status and or performance.

Professional Preparation and Development

The student will:

Demonstrate organizational and administrative efficiency in implementing sports programs, e.g. event management, budgetary procedures, facility maintenance, participation in public relations activities.

  1. organize and conduct effective meetings before, during and after the season; these meetings – for such groups as athletes, staff, guardians and alumni – can be used to prevent, solve or manage problems of the group.
  2. maintain informal, personal contacts designed to collect information and keep open lines of communication among all parties.
  3. use appropriate administrative forms related to (but not necessarily limited to) physical examinations for athletes, emergency procedures, injury reports, parents’ meetings, program evaluation, facility scheduling, travel and budgeting.
  4. regularly inspect equipment and know how to arrange for repair/replacement as needed.
  5. establish record keeping procedures to account for sports equipment and its maintenance.
  6. be involved in public relations activities within both the sport and the community.
  7. recognize the need for preparing and maintaining administrative records; maintain such records; store them for the required period of time.
  8. demonstrate the ability to manage the key elements of contests; these inspecting and approving facilities, transportation, competitors, crowd control, locker room supervision and public relations.
  9. develop and maintain a record keeping system for administrative forms and correspondence.

Acquire sufficient practical field experience and supervision in the essential coaching competence for the level of sport, coached. This would include a variety of knowledge, skills and experiences. The coach should:

  1. know the appropriate sequence used to teach necessary skills to developing athletes and the means for assessing the skill level and progress of athletes.
  2. prepare a season plan considering the abilities of in-coming athletes and maximum facilitation of their skills during the season.
  3. prepare practice plans that reflect reasonable time allowances for skill development in consideration of the sequential nature of skill acquisition.
  4. prepare written practice plans that follow guidelines for effective instruction and meeting the athlete needs.
  5. evaluate athletes during practice sessions; identify those who are able to enter higher levels of competition on the basis of predetermined criteria, such as skill, ability, adherence to rules and social/psychological considerations.
  6. assign positions, events and develop line-ups, orders and rotations that reflect the capabilities and readiness of the athletes.
  7. select skills and strategies appropriate to the sport and choose those that are consistent with athlete abilities.
  8. make appropriate coaching decisions during competition and adjust decisions based on situation – such as changes in strategy or tactics, safety considerations or competitive flow.
  9. teach the rules governing competition to all athletes.
  10. evaluate team play and individual performance in order to correct errors and facilitate maximum performance.
  11. evaluate player development and team play over the course of a season.
  12. deal effectively and sensitively with parents and guardians and/or others concerned with individual athletes.
  13. relate positively to officials, opposing coaches and athletes, and spectators.
  14. be aware of current developments in the sport through attending clinics and workshops, reading professional publications and communicating with other coaches and professionals.
  15. utilize guidelines for effective instruction.
  16. emphasize and foster self-control and self-discipline by athletes.
  17. evaluate effectiveness of drills.
  18. prepare desired outcomes for the athletic program which emphasize the growth and development of athletes.
  19. sequences practice so that athletes become increasingly responsible for themselves and elements of practice.
  20. demonstrate the ability to communicate effectively using audio-visual resources.
  21. take advantage of educational opportunities related to non- sport specific aspects of coaching.
  22. at regular intervals, seek feedback from experienced coaches or assistants to evaluate practice sessions; discuss their observations and implement changes.
  23. scout opponents and use the information for planning contests as appropriate.
  24. apply scientific and experiential information to the improvement of the specific sport.
  25. participate in appropriate professional sport or coaching organizations at the local, state, regional and national levels.
  26. know the techniques for re-teaching and the motivational problems associated with re-teaching.
  27. incorporate assessment and re-teaching into practices and competitions.